Cannabis Social Clubs in Belgium: a study of the organization of collective cannabis cultivation for personal use and characteristics of club members

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Samenvatting

Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are associations of adult cannabis users,

often registered in the relevant national registries, which seek to

establish a closed system of cannabis supply for the personal use of

their members – based on cooperative and non-profit principles. As such,

CSCs can be understood as an alternative (and ‘middle ground’) model

for the supply of cannabis. The first known CSC initiatives emerged in

Spain during the 1990s, but CSCs can now be found in many other

countries, even if not formally recognized by their respective public

authorities (Uruguay is a noteworthy exception, having legalized and

regulated the model since the passing of law 19,172).

The CSC label thus may cover different empirical realities. Although the model has become a frequent subject in the international debate about drug policy reform, detailed empirical data on how CSCs are organized and structured, on how CSCs’ operate as cannabis suppliers, and about their members remains scarce in the international academic literature.

This study aims to analyze CSCs in Belgium, focusing on three dimensions:

  1. The organization, structure and functioning of the CSCs;
  2. The socio-demographic characteristics and drug use patterns of the CSCs’ members;
  3. The cannabis produced by the CSCs.

Output

Publications:

Pardal, M. (2018d). A study of Cannabis Social Clubs in Belgium. Insights into the supply model, the movement, and its key actors (Dissertation).

PARDAL, M. (2018c). An analysis of Belgian Cannabis Social Clubs'

supply practices: a shapeshifting model? International Journal of Drug

Policy, 57, p. 32-41.

PARDAL, M., & BAWIN, F. (2018). The supply of cannabis for medical use through Cannabis Social Clubs in Belgium. Contemporary Drug Problems.

PARDAL, M. (2018b). "The difference is in the tomato at the end": understanding the motivations and practices of cannabis growers operating within Belgian Cannabis Social Clubs. International Journal of Drug Policy, 56, p. 21-29.

PARDAL, M. (2018a). The Belgian Cannabis Social Club landscape. Drugs & Alcohol Today, 18(2).

PARDAL, M., TIEBERGHIEN, J. (2017). An analysis of media framing of and by Cannabis Social Clubs in Belgium: making the news?. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 24(4), 348-358.

DECORTE, T., PARDAL, M., QUEIROLO, R., BOIDI, M. F., SANCHEZ, C., PARES, O. (2017). Regulating Cannabis Social Clubs: a comparative analysis of legal and self-regulatory practices in Spain, Belgium and Uruguay. International Journal of Drug Policy, 43(1), 44-56.

DECORTE, T. & PARDAL, M. (2017). Cannabis Social Clubs in Europe: Prospects and Limits, pp. 285-299. In: Colson, R., Bergeron, H., European Drug Policies: the ways of reform. New York: Routledge.

PARDAL, M. (2016). Cannabis social clubs in Belgium: growing in a legal haze?, pp. 13-29. In: Maillard, J. et al., (eds.), Crime and order, criminal justice experiences and desistance: today’s security issues (Vol. 4). Antwerpen: Maklu.

PARDAL, M. (2016) Cannabis Social Clubs through the lens of the drug user movement. Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, (6),2, 47-58.

Presentations:

PARDAL, M. (2017). A work in progress: understanding the development of the Cannabis Social Club model in Belgium and its current key features. Paper presented at the 2nd Lisbon Addictions Conference, Lisbon (Portugal), 23-26 October 2017.

PARDAL, M. & TIEBERGHIEN, J. (2017). Cannabis Social Clubs on Youtube: a qualitative content analysis. Paper presented at the 28th Annual Conference of the European Society for Social Drug Research, Lisbon (Portugal), 21-23 September 2017.

BAWIN, F. & PARDAL, M. (2017). Supply of cannabis for medical use through cannabis social clubs: an analysis of Belgian practices. Paper presented at the 4th Contemporary Drug Problems conference, Helsinki (Finland), 23-25 August 2017.

PARDAL, M. (2017). “The difference is in the tomato at the end”: understanding the role and practices of cannabis growers operating within Belgian Cannabis Social Clubs. Paper presented at the 11th annual conference of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy, Aarhus (Denmark), 17-19 May 2017.

PARDAL, M. (2017). Understanding Cannabis Social Clubs: a mixed methods approach. Poster presented at the 1st European Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, Leuven (Belgium), 7-9 February 2017.

PARDAL, M. & TIEBERGHIEN, J. (2016). A decade of Cannabis Social Clubs in Belgium: hitting the headlines? Paper presented at the 27th annual conference of the European Society for Social Drug research, Frankfurt (Germany), 22-24 September 2016.

DECORTE, T., PARDAL, M., QUEIROLO, R., BOIDI, M.F., SANCHEZ, C. & PARES, O. (2016) How to regulate Cannabis Social Clubs: analyzing the experiences in Spain, Belgium and Uruguay. Paper presented at the 27th annual conference of the European Society for Social Drug research, Frankfurt (Germany), 22-24 September 2016.

PARDAL, M. (2016). Introduction to CSCs. Invited speaker at side-event of the 59th session of the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Vienna (Austria), 17 March 2016.

PARDAL, M. (2015). Cannabis Social Clubs in Belgium: a study of the organization of collective cannabis cultivation for personal use and characteristics of Club members. Paper presented at the 4th GERN Doctoral Summer School on Crime, Deviance and Criminal Justice, Paris (France), 7-9 September 2015.

PARDAL, M. & DECORTE, T. (2015). Cannabis Social Clubs in Europe. Paper presented at the 26th annual conference of the European Society for Social Drug research, Glasgow (Scotland), 3-5 September 2015.

Contact

Institute for Social Drug Research - Ghent University
Dr. Mafalda Pardal

Algemene info

Looptijd

Startdatum 01/03/2015
Einddatum 31/12/2018
Doorlopend project

Methode

Literatuurstudie
Documentenstudie
Online enquête
Interview

Gefinancierd door

Vlaamse gemeenschap (bv. FWO …)

Product

Illegale drugs

Discipline

Beleidsondersteunend en economisch onderzoek
Sociologisch / psychologisch / criminologisch onderzoek

Regio

Belgisch
Internationaal

Status

Lopend

Datum laatste wijziging: 19/07/2018
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